Standing up for Science resources

In addition to my three-part series reporting on a Standing up for Science media workshop organised by Voice of Young Science (VoYS), below are some resources that have been provided by Sense about Science and the day’s panellists to help researchers to engage in science communication and outreach.

Resources1purpleVoice of Young Science (VOYS) campaigns

Mythbusting and evidence hunting campaigns that have been run by VOYS.  These include projects such as The Detox Dossier (looking at evidence behind claims made by detox products and diets), Haven’t the Foggiest (discussing the evidence behind extreme weather stories) and a letter to the World Health Organisation about homeopathy in developing countries.

Voice of Young Science publications

Standing up for Science (2006)
A lively and informal guide to the media written by VoYS members for other early career researchers

Standing up for Science 2: The nuts and bolts (2008)
More tips for early career researchers on how to talk to the media and stand up for science in public life

Peer review: The nuts and bolts (2012)
A guide to peer review written by early career researchers for early career researchers

Ask for Evidence

The Ask for Evidence campaign, which helps people request for themselves the evidence behind news stories, marketing claims and policies, and the Ask for Evidence ambassadors.

Sense about Science guides

I don’t know what to believe (2005)
Explains how scientists present and judge research using the peer-review process, and how the public can make sense of science stories

Making sense of statistics (2010)
How can you work out what the figures might be telling you?

I’ve got nothing to lose by trying it (2nd edition, 2013)
Every day there are news reports about medical breakthroughs and wonder drugs. How can we make sense of these stories?

Making sense of uncertainty (2013)
In public discussion, scientific uncertainty is often presented as a deficiency of research.  In reality, it’s an essential part of scientific research.

Other links and resources

The Plant Science Panel
50+ independent researchers who will answer questions from the public about plants, agriculture, and the environment

The John Maddox Prize for standing up for science
The prize recognises the work of individuals who promote sound science and evidence on a matter of public interest, facing difficulty or hostility in doing so.

How to start Standing up for Science
Article by Dr Leah Fitzsimmons, postdoctoral researcher at the University of Birmingham and Sense about Science panellist

Resources1purpleUnderstanding Animal Research
A not-for-profit organisation that explains why animals are used in medical and scientific research.

The Science Media Centre
An independent press office helping to ensure that the public have access to the best scientific evidence and expertise through the news media when science hits the headlines

Full Fact
The UK’s independent factchecking charity. Provides free tools, information and advice so that anyone can check the claims they hear from politicians and the media.

PSci-com mailing list
A list to provide a forum for discussion of any matter relating to public communication of science and public engagement with science

The Brilliant Club
Charity that exists to increase the number of pupils from under-represented backgrounds progressing to highly selective universities

scienceengagementPint of Science
Festival that aims to deliver interesting and relevant talks on the latest science in an accessible format to the public – mainly across bars and pubs

A communications competition designed to engage and entertain by breaking down science, technology and engineering concepts into three minute presentations

Cafe Scientifique
A place where anyone can come to explore the latest ideas in STEM.  Meetings take place in cafes, bars, restaurants and theatres.

Three Minute Thesis
Competition to cultivate academic, presentation, and research communication skills by effectively explaining research in three minutes, in a language appropriate to a non-specialist audience

British Science Association Media Fellowships
Provides the unique opportunity for practising scientists, clinicians and engineers to spend 2-6 weeks working at the heart of a media outlet such as the Guardian, BBC Breakfast or the Londonist

Royal Society pairing scheme
Each year, thirty research scientists are paired with UK parliamentarians and civil servants.  They learn about each other’s work by spending time together in Westminster and the researcher’s institutions

STEM Ambassadors
Volunteer your time, enthusiasm and experiences to encourage and inspire young people to achieve more and progress further in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)

I’m a scientist, get me out of here
A free online event where school students meet and interact with scientists.  It’s an X Factor-style competition between scientists, where students are the judges.

A group of people that are passionate about celebrating women in science and passing on their love of science to the next generation

The Big Bang Fair
The largest celebration of science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) for young people in the UK

Students 4 Best Evidence
A network for students interested in evidence-based healthcare

ArticlespurpleThe secrets of good science writing
Series published by The Guardian.  Articles include How to report from a science conference and How to write a science news story based on a research paper.

Nine ways scientists can help improve science journalism
Article published by The Guardian in 2012

BlogspurpleThe Conversation
Academic rigour, journalistic flair blogs
Blogs from Nature, the home of high impact scientific and medical information

Scientific engagement in the age of social media
Reflecting on the use of social media and blogging to rapidly engage a wide, international, audience

You can find my posts on each panel at the following links:

Part One – Standing up for science: “Be brave, but not foolish”
This post reports on the first panel of the day, featuring three researchers from the University of Warwick who have experience of engaging with the media and the public

Part Two – “Be excited about your work!”: What journalists are looking for from researchers
This post reports on the second panel, featuring three journalists who discussed what they are looking for from researchers who want to engage with the media

Part Three – Standing up for science: The nuts and bolts
This post reports on the final panel of the day, featuring panellists who gave advice and practical guidance about how early career researchers can get their voices heard in the media




Standing up for science: The nuts and bolts

This post is the final part of a three-part series reporting on a media workshop I attended at the end of June.  The workshop was organised by Voice of Young Science (VOYS), and aimed to help early career researchers effectively engage with the media about science and research.

In this post, I report on the final panel of the day: Standing up for science – the nuts and bolts.  This panel featured Luke Walton (@Luke_Walton), international press officer at the University of Warwick; Leah Fitzsimmons (@barbs86uk), postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Birmingham; and Chris Peters (@senseaboutsci), scientific affairs manager at Sense about Science.  The panellists opened by giving some introductory advice and practical guidance about how early career researchers can get their voices heard in the media.

Panel 3b
Panellists offer practical guidance to early career researchers looking to engage with the media (Photo credit: Sense about Science)

Luke began by saying that academics should ‘start from the end’ when they are thinking about engaging with the media – that is, turn an academic paper on its head and focus on the conclusions first.  He said that the press office at your university will manage the process of writing a press release, but that nothing will be sent out without the researcher’s final approval.  He said that if something is about to be published, that is a good time to get in touch with your university’s press office, but equally, you can also approach them about being on a list of experts that can be called upon to comment on the latest news.

Leah then went on to say that many researchers (particularly early career researchers) might think “Who am I to comment on this?”, but advised that if you have expertise in an area and your training gives you enough insight to comment, then you are qualified to comment, even if your research isn’t necessarily on that exact topic.  Luke also noted later on that, when talking about your research, you know more than most other people in the world – stick to what you know, and stick to the facts.

Chris then went on to introduce the Ask for Evidence campaign.  He said that AfE exists to support you in asking for evidence on claims that you see in the media, advertising, and public policy, and that you can see on the website what kinds of things other people have asked about.

Audience 3
Photo credit: Sense about Science

The conversation then turned to how researchers can become involved in science outreach.  Leah said that Twitter is a brilliant vehicle for outreach, and also for finding outreach opportunities.  She said that once you start doing outreach and science engagement, it gathers momentum; whilst you might think you don’t have the time to engage in outreach, once you start making the time you will see the benefits and continue to make time for it.  She said that funding bodies, charities, and learned societies all run outreach events, and members of the audience also noted that there are often local events that are geared around science outreach.

stand up for scienceThe panel then talked about how, with almost anything, you can find a news hook, and Luke advised that the press officer at your university can work with you to find that. Leah noted that, as a researcher, you can get desensitised to the wonder of your research – but there’s a reason why you chose that research area and you’re the best person to identify what’s exciting about it.   She went on to say that it’s an investment in yourself to be able to talk about your research; it’s part of your professional development.  You usually get 4-5 days a year for continuing professional development as part of your PhD – media training is an excellent use of this.  Luke noted that often it’s the ECR who is the one that’s really keen to get engaged with the media – and that that’s more valuable than someone with 30 years of tenure who doesn’t want to engage.  As Ana pointed out, you are experts, even if you haven’t been experts for half a century!

The panellists finished by summing up their advice for researchers:


  • Ask for evidence – and hold to account those who are making these claims
  • Put your name forward as someone who can help with making sense of evidence


  • Contact your Press Officer
  • Read New Scientist!


  • Do something – anything – to stand up for science; we have a responsibility.
  • Science outreach and engagement strengthens your CV
  • Somebody out there inspired you to do what you’re doing – be that person for someone else

This post is the final part of a three-part series.  Part One focuses on a discussion with three researchers who have experience of engaging with the media and the public and Part Two focuses on a discussion with journalists about what they are looking for from researchers.  There is also a separate post listing some fantastic resources that have been provided by Sense about Science and the workshop’s panellists.

“Be excited about your work!”: What journalists are looking for from researchers

This post is the second part of a three-part series reporting on a media workshop organised by Voice of Young Science (VOYS), aiming to help early career researchers effectively engage with the media about science and research.

In this post, I report on the second panel of the day, What journalists are looking for. This panel featured three journalists: Danny Buckland (@DannyBuckland), freelance health journalist; Tulip Mazumdar (@TulipMazumdar), global health correspondent for the BBC; and Wendy Grossman (@WendyG), freelance journalist specialising in computers, freedom, and privacy.  The panellists opened by introducing themselves and their work, and talked about what they are looking for from researchers.

Panel 2

Danny began by saying that essentially, newspapers are unashamedly there to a) make headlines, and b) make money.  He said that there is a huge thirst for scientific and health stories but that if scientists want their story out there, they need to understand that the public may consume it differently to how it was meant.  He said that experts are in demand, so it’s important for researchers to work out how to build that bridge with the media.

Tulip then went on to say that when she is covering a story, she has a responsibility to cover it in a way that is informative and accurate.  She said that reporters are the ones to ultimately decide the content, and that the focus should be on why someone (globally) should care about the story.

Wendy then said that researchers should ask the journalist, “Who is the audience, and what do they want to know?”  This helps you to shape your material so that it is appropriate and engaging.  She said that journalists often have to cut a large amount of material and they won’t necessarily know what is most important, scientifically, so the researcher needs to identify what is most important to get right.  She also said that it is inevitable that there will be articles that make you furious – but don’t be too quick to fire off an angry email.  Journalists want to get things right and won’t usually have deliberately misconstrued what you were saying; if there are factual errors, contact the journalist as things can be changed.

Audience 1
Members of the audience ask questions of the panellists (Photo credit: Sense about Science)

The panel then went on to take questions from the audience – here’s a selection:

Who should researchers approach if they want to get their work into the media?

The panel agreed that local news outlets are a great place to start, as they are more likely to pick it up and will like reporting on research that is coming out of local institutions. They said that it would be a good idea to call the local radio station and ask for their news editor, and then ask whether they have a science and health specialist – and then take that person out for coffee!

Where do you (the journalist) find stories?

The panellists all agreed that if you want to get your research into the media, you should send your work to correspondents who are working in your field, and Tulip added that you should then email them multiple times if they don’t get back to you! Wendy said that journalists also attend academic conferences, so ask the conference organisers which journalists are in attendance and then make sure you make a connection with them. Danny said that journalists are bombarded with too many press releases; he looks at journals and other newspapers (which is why approaching your local newspaper first of all gives you collateral).  He also said that videos are much more compelling.  Tulip said that The Lancet’s press releases are good for this, as they are well formatted and also send pictures and footage that can be used.

How should researchers prepare for media engagement?

excitedPanellists said that you should know what you want to say, and that you should imagine that you need to explain it to a non-scientist friend.  Tulip agreed, and warned that if they are given something that is hard to make sense of, it will go to the bottom of the pile. You need to be able to state the impact of your research in human terms.

The panellists also said to remember that you are the expert – the journalist will only be meeting with you if they are genuinely interested in running with the story.    Tulip agreed, and went on to say that you should be yourself – talk like a normal person, and feel free to be excited about your work!  Wendy also said you should remember that you have been invited; be proud.

Panellists finished by summing up their advice for researchers:


  • Don’t be afraid to put yourself out there
  • Get to know local reporters who are interested in your field


  • Don’t be overly concerned – you’re the expert, and you have something that journalists want
  • Imagine you’ve been asked “So what?” and make sure you include your answer to that in your communication
  • See if you can get your research into a statement like “You’ll never guess what they’ve discovered now…”


  • Follow journalists who are working in your area

This post is the second part of a three-part series.  Part One focuses on a discussion with three researchers who have experience of engaging with the media and the public and Part Three focuses on the nuts and bolts of media engagement.  There is also a separate post listing some fantastic resources that have been provided by Sense about Science and the workshop’s panellists.

Standing up for science: “Be brave, but not foolish”

Last Friday, I was fortunate enough to be able to attend a Standing up for Science media workshop organised by Voice of Young Science (VOYS), a network of early career researchers who are committed to taking an active role in public discussions about science.  Their work is part of Sense about Science, an organisation which exists to challenge misrepresentation of science and evidence within public fora.  For instance, one of their current projects, Ask for Evidence, is a public campaign that helps people ask for and make sense of the scientific evidence behind claims that they’ve seen in the news, marketing campaigns or public policies.

This workshop aimed to help early career researchers make their voices heard in public debates about science by hosting panel discussions with scientists and science journalists who talked about how to effectively engage with the media about science and research.

I heart evidence
I was very excited to finally get myself an “I ❤ evidence” badge!

In this post, I report on the first panel, Science and the media. This panel featured three researchers who have experience of engaging with the media and the public:  Deirdre Hollingsworth (@deirdreholl), professor of infectious disease epidemiology (University of Warwick); Nataliya Tkachenko (@FloodSmartCity), PhD researcher (Warwick Institute for the Science of Cities); and Franco Cappuccio, professor of cardiovascular medicine and epidemiology (University of Warwick).  The panellists opened by introducing themselves and giving a bit of a background about their experience of engagement with the media and what they had learned, before opening up to questions from the audience.

Deirdre began by emphasising the need for very clear notes when engaging with journalists either face-to-face or over the phone.  She said that anything you say can be quoted, so it is important to use calm, sensible language that cannot be misconstrued; the journalist writing the article usually doesn’t get to choose the headline, so be careful how you say things as it will be another person choosing the headline based on what you said.  She also said that researchers shouldn’t be surprised by personal questions – journalists will often ask how you feel about the research you’re discussing.

Nataliya then went on to say that you should be prepared for any eventuality, particularly if you’re being interviewed on live television or radio.  Although journalists may provide you with a list of questions that they’re likely to ask, these may change (especially if there are tech issues), so you should be prepared to go off-script.

Franco then highlighted that there are different types of media engagement; written press releases, being asked to comment on your research (or someone else’s) in writing, recorded television or radio (where you may get the opportunity to revise what you said, but you may not!) and live television or radio appearances.  He said that scientists are generally well-received by the media and are usually respected, not attacked.  However, he also advised that when discussing controversial topics, there is the danger of getting drawn into polarised debates.  He said that you shouldn’t fall into the trap of doing a telephone interview off the cuff – if a journalist calls, ask them to call back in a couple of hours as this will give you time to prepare.  If you miss your slot, so be it, but don’t just give an interview that you’ve not prepared for.

Panel 1
Researchers from the University of Warwick discuss their experience of engaging with the media (Photo credit: Sense about Science)

The panel then went on to take questions from the audience – here’s a selection:

Is media communication for everyone?

All the panellists agreed that it is – but said that it is important to make sure that you’ve had the right training.  Franco also acknowledged that not everyone may like speaking on live television, and it is important to recognise that there are different levels of media engagement – just because you don’t want to speak on live TV doesn’t mean that you can’t engage the media through other fora.  He also said that there is no disgrace in saying that you don’t know the answer to a question – that actually, it can build credibility! Nataliya said that for PhD students, media appearances can be looked at like a mini-viva; they are helpful for building confidence for public speaking, they help you to think about your research in different ways and they raise new questions that you may not have thought of.

When is the best time to get training?

The panellists all felt that it should be taken as early as possible – or whenever you can get it for free! Members of the audience noted that some universities offer a certificate of transferable skills as part of their PhD programme, and that media training – including camera work – can be undertaken as part of that.  It was also felt that having media training gives your work more power; scientists are taught to speak and write in scientific language, but they also need to be able to translate that into “human”!

Is how you are responded to by the media based on your field of expertise?

BraveThe panellists agreed that often, media appearances were as a result of global issues related to their field.  Deirdre warned that, when this is the case, researchers may be pushed into answering questions that they don’t want to.  She gave an example of a radio appearance during the swine flu epidemic where she was asked by a listener whether or not they should have the swine flu vaccination (which at the time was still in its early stages where a lot was still unknown).  She said that for difficult questions like this, you need to have answers pre-prepared – e.g. “I’m part of a larger body of work and wouldn’t want to comment”.  She said that researchers need to be brave, but not foolish.  Franco also said that when discussing complex issues, you need to put yourself into the shoes of the person you’re talking to – streamline your message. You need to be able to justify your research to those who are funding you (which is often the public purse) – what changes have you made?

How do we help universities to prioritise engagement?

The panellists gave examples of routes to public engagement that can be useful when the university is not necessarily making it a priority.  For example, Nataliya said that individuals can create their own platforms via blogs and social media to promote their own research, and Deirdre said that learned societies are another good way of getting support with public engagement, and can often offer opportunities or media training. Franco said that charities are another good platform for engagement.

In terms of getting universities more involved, the panellists noted that it is possible to find out (via the internet) the market value of various types of media engagement, and that this can be sold to the university as the monetary value of exposure as well as the academic value. Nataliya also noted that the Research Fish research impact database requests that media engagement is included in submissions.

Panellists were then asked to sum up their advice for researchers who want to engage with the media.


  • It’s a good idea to communicate science – but learn how to do it well
  • You have a choice as to how much you engage
  • When you write a paper, sum it up in 5 sentences and put it on your website
  • If you’re really uncomfortable, don’t do it!
  • You’re in a fortunate position – share it.


  • Take as many media training opportunities as you can
  • Recognise that there are different modes of media engagement – try to identify what yours is (e.g. blogger, public speaker)


  • Engage at a level you feel comfortable with
  • Be proactive – don’t wait for the media to come to you
  • Rehearse for public speaking
  • Remember that media appearances are part of long-term science engagement – the media won’t forget you!

This post is part of a three-part series.  Part Two focuses on a discussion with journalists about what they are looking for from researchers and Part Three focuses on the nuts and bolts of media engagement.  There is also a separate post listing some fantastic resources that have been provided by Sense about Science and the workshop’s panellists.

Writing to your MP about the DUP

This afternoon, I wrote to my MP.  This isn’t something I do very often, but I really don’t want to be writing this paper  I am appalled at the stances taken by the Democratic Unionist Party and Theresa May’s proposed collaboration with them, and feel that our representatives in Parliament should know how their constituents feel about the plans.

Here’s what I wrote – if you feel that these are issues you also feel strongly about, I would urge you to write to your MP too.  Feel free to use what I’ve written (either as a template or verbatim, if you don’t think it’s complete trash!), and let’s make sure our voices are heard.

Dear Jon,

Congratulations on your success in Leicester South in yesterday’s General Election, and on Labour’s successes on a national level.

As a Labour party member and voter in your constituency, I am writing to express my concern over Theresa May’s negotiations with the Democratic Unionist Party regarding the future of the British government.  As I am sure you are aware, the DUP has a very poor track record with regards to a number of key issues:

LGBT+ rights: They have a well-documented opposition to gay marriage; as a result of their veto, Northern Ireland is now the only remaining part of the UK where same-sex marriage is not legal (Syal, 2017).  Furthermore, they have members who have told school children that homosexuality is an “abomination” (Roberts, 2013) and who have said that children raised in homosexual relationships are more likely to be abused or neglected (Pasha-Robinson, 2017).  They also once championed a campaign called “Save Ulster from Sodomy” (ibid).

Women’s rights:  The DUP is also known to have fought hard to oppose any attempts to extend abortion rights for women living in Northern Ireland (Syal, 2017), saying that they do not support the extension of the 1967 act that has been enacted in the rest of the UK (Pasha-Robinson, 2017).  Largely as a result of their veto, a woman cannot legally have an abortion in Northern Ireland (York, 2017) and they also oppose abortion even in cases of rape, incest or fatal abnormalities (Kelly, 2016).

Climate change:  In the past, the DUP has had for its environment minister a climate change denier who said that the idea of climate change was a “con” (Pasha-Robinson, 2017).  Their manifesto also made no mention of the issue (York, 2017)

Evolution and creationism.  Many senior members of the DUP are known to be creationists, and members have in the past endorsed the teaching of creationism in schools to counter evolutionary teaching (Pasha-Robinson, 2017).  The current chair of the DUP’s education committee, Mervyn Storey, is also a member of an organisation that promotes the ‘young earth’ theory (York, 2017) and the party recently lobbied the National Trust to include creationist theories as well as scientific explanations in their Giant’s Causeway visitor centre (ibid).

As my representative in Parliament, I am writing to ask that, wherever possible, you strongly oppose any collaboration between the Conservative party and the DUP, in the interest of the British people.  In addition, if the proposed collaboration does go ahead, I am asking that you vocally support the rights of women and LGBT+ individuals in Parliament, oppose creationist stances to education, and continue to champion initiatives to combat climate change.

With very best wishes,

Rebecca Linnett
[address withheld – but make sure you include yours]


Kelly, J. (2016, April 8).  Why are Northern Ireland’s abortion laws different to the rest of the UK?  BBC News Magazine.  Retrieved from

Pasha-Robinson, L. (2017, June 9). Why is the DUP so controversial? The party’s stances on abortion, gay marriage and climate change explained. The Independent.  Retrieved from

Roberts, S. (2013, October 25). Northern Ireland DUP politician tells children homosexuality is ‘an abomination’. Pink News. Retrieved from

Syal, R. (2017, June 9). From climate denial to abortion: six DUP stances you should know about. The Guardian. Retrieved from

York, C. (2017, June 9). DUP’s Record On Abortion, Creationism And LGBT Rights. Huffington Post. Retrieved from

What is perfectionism?

Perfectionism is a personality trait that is characterised by high personal standards, high levels of self-critical evaluation and concern over mistakes (A. P. Hill & Curran, 2015). Originally, researchers thought that perfectionism was only negative, but it is now widely acknowledged that perfectionism has both positive and negative dimensions (Stoeber & Otto, 2006).  A person can potentially display varying amounts of overall perfectionism as well as varying amounts of the characteristics which underpin its various subscales (Frost, Marten, Lahart & Rosenblate, 1990).

In 1978, a researcher called Don Hamachek published one of the first papers to distinguish between these positive and negative dimensions of perfectionism, arguing that some people may display high levels of perfectionism whilst still remaining psychologically healthy.  He defined ‘normal’ perfectionists as people who have high standards but can still consider their work successful even if it contains minor flaws.  They derive pleasure from being careful and meticulous and the fruits of their efforts bring them a sense of satisfaction. In comparison, ‘neurotic’ perfectionists are described by Hamachek as having similarly high standards but also as being exceptionally self-critical.  ‘Neurotic’ perfectionists never feel that they have completed anything to a good enough standard and consequently are denied a sense of satisfaction once they have completed a task.  As Frost et al. (1990) later noted, the ‘neurotic’ perfectionist’s over-concern about mistakes leads them to be driven by a fear of failure rather than a need for achievement.

Hamachek argued that the difference between ‘normal’ and ‘neurotic’ perfectionists is noticeable not only in their style of work but also in their style of thinking about how to approach a task.  ‘Normal’ perfectionists create performance boundaries for themselves based on their strengths and limitations, ensuring that their expectations are reasonable and realistic and that therefore success is possible.  On the other hand, ‘neurotic’ perfectionists demand an unattainably high level of performance from themselves and demonstrate a dichotomous thinking style whereby performance must be perfect otherwise it is considered worthless (Burns, 1980 as cited in Frost et al., 1990). As Hamachek noted, ‘normal’ perfectionists focus on how to do things right whilst ‘neurotic’ perfectionists focus on how to avoid doing things wrong.

It is now generally acknowledged amongst researchers that perfectionism appears to have two over-arching dimensions (Stoeber & Otto, 2006), with each broadly relating to either positive or negative outcomes.  The most commonly used terminology to refer to these in recent years is that of ‘perfectionistic strivings’ and ‘perfectionistic concerns’.

Perfectionistic strivings

Stoeber and Otto (2006) define perfectionistic strivings as a positive dimension that is concerned with high personal standards and self-oriented (intrinsically motivated) perfectionism (see also Gotwals, Stoeber, Dunn, & Stoll, 2012).  This dimension usually leads to comparatively few negative outcomes and is often associated with positive characteristics such as high levels of trait emotional intelligence, satisfaction with life (Smith et al., 2015), better exam performance and the tendency to set task-approach goals (Stoeber, Haskew, & Scott, 2015).

Perfectionistic concerns

On the other hand, perfectionistic concerns is described as a negative dimension that is focused on concern over making mistakes, self-doubt about actions, socially prescribed (extrinsically motivated) perfectionism and a perceived discrepancy between actual achievements and high expectations (Gotwals et al., 2012; Stoeber & Otto, 2006).  Gotwals et al. (2012) also argue that fear of negative social evaluation and negative reactions to imperfection are characteristic of this dimension.

This dimension has been found to be associated with an array of negative outcomes (A. P. Hill & Curran, 2015), such as low levels of trait emotional intelligence, anxiety, stress (Smith, Saklofske, & Yan, 2015), depressive symptoms (Békés et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015), psychological distress (James, Verplanken, & Rimes, 2015), avoidant coping strategies (Moroz & Dunkley, 2015) and eating disturbances (Muyan, Chang, Jilani, & Yu, 2015; Shanmugam & Davies, 2015).

Tackling negative perfectionism

There is are endless amounts of books, articles and websites devoted to tackling perfectionism that has become problematic, but some of the best advice I’ve seen so far has come from Don Hamachek himself.  He recommends keeping four goals in mind as you try to change any overly perfectionistic behaviour:

1.  Be task selective.  Choose one or two areas in which you really want to do well, and focus your creative energy on them.  Rather than feeling that you must be a perfectionist in everything you do, give yourself permission to be a perfectionist in just those one or two areas.

2.  Give yourself permission to be less than perfect.  Make a conscious, deliberate decision to be less than perfect in areas other than those one or two that you have chosen.

3.  Set reasonable, reachable goals for yourself.  Take stock of your strengths and weaknesses, and set goals that are realistic in light of these.

4.  Choose at least one activity you can do without criticising yourself.  This should be something that is easy enough for you to do without worrying about your progess, and that has physical, mental or spiritual value for you.

In conclusion…

It is important to acknowledge that perfectionism does not necessarily represent a negative, dysfunctional, or even pathological characteristic. Instead, perfectionism is a multidimensional phenomenon with many facets – some of which are positive, some of which are negative.

– Stoeber & Otto, 2006, p.315


Békés, V., Dunkley, D. M., Taylor, G., Zuroff, D. C., Lewkowski, M., Elizabeth Foley, J., . . . Westreich, R. (2015). Chronic stress and attenuated improvement in depression over 1 year: The moderating role of perfectionism. Behavior Therapy, 46(4), 478-492. doi:

Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 449-468. doi:

Gotwals, J. K., Stoeber, J., Dunn, J. G. H., & Stoll, O. (2012). Are perfectionistic strivings in sport adaptive? A systematic review of confirmatory, contradictory, and mixed evidence. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 53(4), 263-279. doi:

Hamachek, D. E. (1978). Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 15(1), 27-33.

Hill, A. P., & Curran, T. (2015). Multidimensional perfectionism and burnout: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(3), 269-288. doi:

James, K., Verplanken, B., & Rimes, K. A. (2015). Self-criticism as a mediator in the relationship between unhealthy perfectionism and distress. Personality and Individual Differences, 79, 123-128. doi:

Moroz, M., & Dunkley, D. M. (2015). Self-critical perfectionism and depressive symptoms: Low self-esteem and experiential avoidance as mediators. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 174-179. doi:

Muyan, M., Chang, E. C., Jilani, Z., & Yu, T. (2015). Predicting eating disturbances in Turkish adult females: Examining the role of intimate partner violence and perfectionism. Eating Behaviors, 19, 102-105. doi:

Shanmugam, V., & Davies, B. (2015). Clinical perfectionism and eating psychopathology in athletes: The role of gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 99-105. doi:

Smith, M. M., Saklofske, D. H., & Yan, G. (2015). Perfectionism, trait emotional intelligence, and psychological outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 155-158. doi:

Smith, M. M., Saklofske, D. H., Yan, G., & Sherry, S. B. (2015). Perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns interact to predict negative emotionality: Support for the tripartite model of perfectionism in Canadian and Chinese university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 141-147. doi:

Stoeber, J., & Otto, K. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(4), 295-319. doi:

Stoeber, J., Haskew, A. E., & Scott, C. (2015). Perfectionism and exam performance: The mediating effect of task-approach goals. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 171-176. doi:

Banning electronic devices in universities is ableism, not innovation

Students with a wide range of disabilities and specific learning difficulties are known to benefit from using laptops and tablets during lectures as they offer alternative ways of engaging with the teaching material, and much assistive technology has been developed in recent years which aims to bridge the gap between disabled students’ experiences of learning and those of their peers.  Denying students access to such technology is as cruel and excluding as denying a sign language interpreter to a student with a hearing impairment.

Over the weekend, Ryan Balot and Clifford Orwin – two lecturers from the University of Toronto – published a self-congratulatory opinion piece on the Canadian Globe and Mail website about how they have banned electronic devices from their lecture theatres and seminar rooms.  The tone of the piece is nothing short of condescending; the authors clearly believe that this patriarchal-style imposition is warranted – that, left to their own devices, students of today are incapable of using their “glittering laptops and cellphones” for anything but “foolish” pursuits, not like those older, wiser students of yesteryear who are now lawyers, and bankers, and who apparently think differently about life all because they didn’t have WiFi when they were undergraduates.

This imbecilic portrayal of today’s students as shallow time-wasters whose heads are turned by the “glitter” of technology is offensive enough.  However, what really incenses me about this decision is the effect it will have on those students with different access needs.

From the outset, it would appear that accessibility is not high on these lecturers’ agendas – after all, they don’t make it through the first paragraph without bragging about “[n]ever issuing a trigger warning”, seeming to equate this with their “right to teach as one sees fit”.  Much has been written on the appropriateness (or not) of trigger warnings within an academic context, but really, the issue is simple: Trigger warnings are not about avoiding offense, they are about avoiding the re-traumatisation of people who have suffered trauma. You don’t have a right to not be offended – you should have a right not to be re-traumatised during a lecture.

The decision to ban electronic devices from their teaching spaces is a continuation of the dismissive approach to fair access which Balot and Orwin seem to have taken.  Students with a wide range of disabilities and specific learning difficulties are known to benefit from using laptops and tablets during lectures as they offer alternative ways of engaging with the teaching material, and much assistive technology has been developed in recent years which aims to bridge the gap between disabled students’ experiences of learning and those of their peers.  Denying students access to such technology is as cruel and excluding as denying a sign language interpreter to a student with a hearing impairment.  These students are going to be more than “disappointed and bemused” – they are going to be at a significant disadvantage in comparison to their non-disabled peers and they are going to be quite justified in feeling that their lecturers couldn’t give a toss about whether or not they are able to fully access their education.  They certainly won’t feel that they are in an environment in which their thinking “thrives”.

But wait – Balot and Orwin have addressed this (quite adequately, they seem to feel).  As they point out, “university policy requires [them] to allow students registered with accessibility services to use computers”.  That’s right – they’re addressing the disability issue, but only because university policy requires them to.  They go on to state that, consequently, they are allowing such students to use computers, and, to circumvent the confidentiality issue that they have created in which disabled students are now the only ones in the room with an electronic device, they have allowed non-disabled students to use computers as well, if they agree to upload their notes to the accessibility service.  Again though, only because of “university policy”.

The issue with this ‘fix’ – aside from how clear it is that the authors begrudge having to issue it at all – is that it will still exclude disabled students.  Firstly, there will be those who are registered with accessibility services but who have a very real problem with the idea that their disability will soon become public knowledge.  Some may not have even received a diagnosis of a specific learning difficulty (such as dyslexia or dyspraxia) until they began university and will still be getting used to it themselves.  Forget the other students who are allowed a laptop if they upload notes – those will be few and far between. In the main, students in these lectures will be aware that those using laptops and other electronic devices have a disability or specific learning difficulty of some sort.  This will lead at least some disabled students to opt out of using such technology at all so that they are not singled out as being different from their peers.  This will, inevitably, have a disastrous effect on their learning and on their student experience as a whole.

Secondly, there will also be a large group of students within Balot and Orwin’s lectures that are not “registered with accessibility services” for whatever reason – be it because they are having difficulty coming to terms with needing support, or because they have slipped through the net of standardised learning difficulty testing.  Nevertheless, these students may have greater difficulty accessing lectures and other learning environments than their peers, and therefore rely on laptops or other electronic devices to help bridge this gap.  The authors’ blanket decision that only “registered” students can have access to such technology means that they too will be excluded from fair access to learning material unless they can ‘prove’ they are disabled (and are willing to subsequently be publicly ‘outed’ as such).

The authors finish by stating that “research suggests that students learn and remember more when they take notes by hand”.  This is commonly accepted as true (although it would be nice if they pointed you towards which ‘research’) – but it is only the case when all other things are equal.  A student that doesn’t have different access needs may indeed learn more effectively when they take notes by hand.  However, the situation is drastically different for a person with a specific learning difficulty such as dyslexia, who may struggle to read their own writing or to write quickly enough to take a set of cogent and coherent notes.  Under these circumstances, the denial of electronic devices is a cruel blow which only serves to further exclude students who are already significantly disadvantaged and underrepresented in higher education.

Accessibility review: Conkers circuit

On Saturday, in celebration of my new Wheeldrive power-assisted wheels, we decided to head over to the cycle route around Conkers to see how wheelchair-friendly it was (and pick up a few geocaches along the way!)

There are three routes around, all of varying lengths – you can see them on this map here.  We decided to do the orange route, which is 3.75 miles long.  We actually cut the route short and did the last bit along the road (making the distance nearer 3.6 miles), which you can see from the two maps below; the red arrow is where we deviated from the cycle path and headed back along the road.  I would not advise doing that at all; the pavement is very narrow and overgrown, you’re likely to get stung by nettles and risk falling into the road at times.  In retrospect, it was definitely one of our less wise decisions (but the battery on one of my wheels was getting low so I was panicking!)

We parked at the free car park that is opposite the Diana Princess of Wales Memorial Wood, and just off Occupation Road in/near Albert Village.  It’s not that easy to find on Google Maps (which I use for SatNav), but the co-ordinates are 52.7528410, -1.5587190 if you have a gadget that you can program that into!  As you can see from the photo below, the car park isn’t ideal – it’s quite an uneven, hardcore surface – but I found it was passable so long as I went backwards, and once you’re out of the car park the surface is much better. The exit from the car park to the cycle route (assuming that you’re doing the route clockwise, and therefore heading firstly towards the lake) has a barrier that you have to go through (see below), but I found I got through fine in my chair.



Once you’re on the cycle path, the surface is mostly much smoother – a sort of rough concrete – and I found it really quite easy to navigate.

The views around the lake are really beautiful, especially if you’re there on a clear day like we were.  It’s pretty hilly in places, which was fine for us as my wheels are power-assisted, but I imagine if you were completely self-propelling you’d struggle unless you’d got someone with you to help push.  This is probably the most beautiful part of the whole walk.

As you get to Conkers itself, the cycle route ceases to be particularly well-marked, but you essentially have to head for the Conkers building and then go around the left-hand side of it.  Fairly soon after you’ve gone past the car park and the picnic area, you’ll see this railway bridge. After you’ve gone under it, you need to take a right across the railway tracks.  Again, I had no problem with this in my chair as the tracks were level with the rest of the ground.  Once you’ve crossed the tracks, you should see this marker for the Ennstone Trail and another barrier.

Not long after you’ve left Conkers itself, you’ll come to Spring Cottage Road (marked by the green arrow on the map below) and you’ll need to cross this to continue on the cycle route.  Both of the following photos are taken after I crossed the road; you will emerge from the cycle route near the red post box on the first photo, and then cross at the crossing shown on the second photo.  The crossing was relatively easy; there are dropped kerbs and relatively good visibility in terms of traffic (although I was glad I had someone with me to double-check that).

Immediately after crossing the road, you have to go through another of the barriers like the one at the exit from the car park.  Unfortunately, the path at this point is very uneven and there is a drop of about 2-3 inches (see photo below).  It was manageable in my chair, but you do get pitched forward quite a bit.


The rest of the route was uneventful and pretty easy.  As I’ve said, we didn’t do the final .15 miles of the orange route but I’ve got no reason to believe that it was any less accessible than the rest of the cycle route was. We intend to go back and explore that part at another time, and if we do I will update this page

I hope this guide has helped you to decide whether you want to try this route out.  It was definitely worth it as the scenery in places is very beautiful (and there are at least 6 geocaches on the route, if you’re into that sort of thing!) If you have any questions, or can think of something I’ve missed, then give me a shout on Twitter @rebeccalinnett.  Happy exploring!


We’re not being overdramatic: LGBT people are still not safe

This week has been a week of unspeakable tragedy.

Much has been written about the tragic deaths that occurred in Orlando last weekend, both from an LGBT perspective and not.  Similarly, much has been written about the brutal assassination of Jo Cox, an MP murdered in her constituency on Thursday.

So why am I writing more?

Partly, it is because these tragedies have deepy moved me, and what I do with that is write.  However, the main reason is because the intersection of these two events – the first on a community which I am a part of, and the second in the country in which I live – has affected me in a profound and personal way.

Since last weekend, debate has raged about whether the Orlando attacks are to be considered homophobic, epitomised for many in Owen Jones’ interview on Sky News on Sunday.  (In fact, whilst searching for a link to that video, I found a vicious article from The Spectator lambasting Owen for, apparently, making the tragedy “all about Owen”.)

Here’s the thing: That’s not what we in the LGBT community are trying to do.  What we’re trying to get across, however, is that in the main, we often do not feel safe in or validated by society in the same way that heterosexual, cisgender people are able to (e.g. Herek, Cogan & Gillis, 2002).  I think, in the UK at least, there is the intimation amongst non-LGBT folk that maybe we’re overstating our case a bit – sure, these things happen in the States, but in the UK we’re ultra accepting of sexual minorities and the LGBT comunity are being a tad dramatic by suggesting that they still live in fear.

Sadly, it’s not the case – and this is where the tragic death of Jo Cox comes in.  Brutal, senseless violence happens, and is happening, on our streets, largely as a result of ideology.  You heard, and will continue to hear, about Jo’s murder because she was a public figure.  Rightly so.  Her death is an unspeakable tragedy, a betrayal by the country that she served and called her home.

But just because it’s the only crime you’re hearing about doesn’t mean it’s the only crime that’s happening.  Recent reports suggest 8 in 10 LGBT people have been verbally abused or harassed, and 1 in 10 have been physically assaulted, and a 2013 report suggests that approximately 630,000 LGBT individuals had been the victim of a hate crime in the three years prior to its publication.  Furthermore, more than three quarters of these victims do not report the crime to the police for fear that they won’t be taken seriously.

Personally, I have been very fortunate to grow up in a generation where, by and large, I have not been at risk to the degree that LGBT friends and family have been in previous generations.  Still, while my wife and I were on our honeymoon in 2011, we were having a meal out when a fight broke out between two men, one of whom was hurling savage homophobic insults at the other and trying to stab him with a broken bottle.  Earlier, in 2008, I was in Ireland with my then-girlfriend when we had homophobic insults shouted at us from a passing car.  (This is without detailing the countless times I have been asked to leave churches due to my sexuality, or the two occasions where church leaders felt it necessary to cast ‘the demons of homosexuality’ out of me.)

The message that the tragedies of this week have sent us is this: There are still people in this world who are so intolerant of the LGBT community that they will resort to violence, and there are people in England, in 2016, who will launch savage, murderous attacks to get their point across.  This is why minorities, sexual or otherwise, still live in fear.

I’ll finish with a personal point to illustrate this.  Last night, my wife and I went into the city centre to attend a vigil for Jo Cox.  We are devastated by her death, both in terms of her personal loss and also in terms of what it says about the state of our country. The tributes were very moving, and at one point I reached for my wife’s hand.  And then I stopped – because I thought:  What if… what if there is someone here who is opposed to gay relationships? What if that person, with tensions already running high and the precedence for violence already set, attacks us, because we held hands? And I sat there in fear, in England, in 2016. Not because I wanted to ram my sexuality down other peoples’ throats, as LGBT people are so often accused of doing – but because I wanted to hold the hand of my wife, the woman I have dedicated my life to, at a time of national mourning.

That is what these attacks mean to the LGBT community – and to minorities in general. So please, stop accusing us of being over-sensitive.



What p-values really are – and what they aren’t

I was recently pointed towards this article by Regina Nuzzo, which was published in the science journal Nature in 2014 – and finally got around to reading it this morning.  It’s a really readable commentary on the use of p-values and significance testing in scientific research, and, as an undergraduate who began learning statistics just as the debate about p-values, effect sizes and confidence intervals really began to heat up, a good reminder of the main points behind it all.

Here are a few of my favourites:

1. P-values were never meant to be a definitive test.  Instead, they were devised as a way of ascertaining whether findings were ‘significant’ in the sense of “worthy of a second look” (p.506); part of a process that combines the data with background knowledge of the field to reach a plausible conclusion.

“Researchers need to… bring into their analysis elements of scientific judgement about the plausibility of a hypothesis and study limitations” (p.506).

2. P-values cannot ‘prove’ an underlying reality.  All they can do is provide the probability of such results being seen if the null hypothesis were true (i.e. there really is no effect in the underlying population).  Even if the p-value indicates that this probability is very small, this doesn’t automatically prove that the effect does exist in the population; all it tells us about is the chance of this occurring if the null hypothesis were true (and there is no effect).

3. P-values are not an indicator of practical relevance; statistical significance and psychological significance are not always the same thing.  Instead, we should be looking at effect sizes (and the confidence intervals around them).  Sometimes we obtain incredibly small p-values (particularly with large sample sizes) but the effect sizes are tiny; although statistically significant, the results are not necessarily also psychologically significant.  Reporting effect sizes indicates the size and importance of the effect itself and therefore gives a better picture of the underlying reality.

I think that for current undergraduates, these points are the most important to remember, particularly if you intend on pursuing a career in research.  We are fortunate to be entering the academic world at a time when traditional research methods are being questioned and revised; as a result, we will hopefully become researchers who have a greater understanding of our findings and what these really mean in the populations we are interested in.